Genetic Engineering in Cardamine?!

Yesterday, we discussed about monsoon fast growing plants - Cardamine
What is the meaning of monsoon fast growing plants?

Does these only grow in the monsoon?

Can we culture monsoon fast growing plants throughout the year?

So, while discussing we understand the life cycle of Cardamine plants. i.e
Seeds - Cotyledonous leaves - 3 simple leaves - 1st compound leaf start - after 5-7 compound leaf 1st flower buds - again we can get seeds.

Also, interesting thing is it’s having 3 different types of leaves- Cotyledonous leaves, 3 simple leaves, Compound leaves

From observation and discussion, my hypothesis is - single seed to next generation seeds; Cardamine plant requires 2 months.

So, here nature is helping us to test this hypothesis by growing Cardamine seeds on the wall.

Hence, we can get an observations from garden lab Panvel Maharashtra.

Here is the photo taken from CUBE garden lab Panvel, Maharashtra where we can see the red circle representing cotyledonous leaves and 1st simple leaf on Cardamine seedling. Date of photo - 11 July 2023. Photo taken by Shraddha. location -Panvel, Maharashtra

This is another Cardamine seedling grown on the wall which is having 1st flower bud. How can we use such type of Cardamine plants and perform floral dip method in a home labs?

summary as quoted by Shraddha.

Summary of the second half of ChatShaala

What makes cardamine a model system?

Cardamine is a small flowering plant and belongs to the Family Brassicaceae. thinking ?
Let me explain in easy words, Cardamine is like the Mustard close relative of Cabbage, Cauliflower, Turnip, Broccoli and Arabidopsis thaliana YES! astonished! Cardamine is a close relative of Arabidopsis, which is a popular model organism in Plant Biology and Genetics.

Here’s the Research paper title Cardamine hirsuta: a comparative view
Corresponding authors: Hay, Angela ( and Tsiantis,
Miltos ( from Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany.
The Research paper says: Cardamine hirsuta is related to the model plant A.thaliana and comparisons between these two experimentally tractable species have advanced our understanding of development and diversity.
This the link of above Research Paper published in 2016.
Since Arabidopsis is an European species so what conditions (Favourable) will have to be given to cultivate it inside the lab.

Cardamine: Substitute Indian Model System for Arabidopsis

So, How do we study genetic engineering in Cardamine? What is floral dip method?
Floral dip is a technique through which we can incorporate the gene of interest by dipping the floral bud in a solution containing gene of interest. Floral bud is dipped in the solution containing gene of interest(kanamycin resistance gene in this case).
Kanamycin is an antibiotic and it triggers the growth rate and chlorophyll production in Cardamine as found out by Nazish in her Homelab experiment in which she used normal cardamine seeds and germinated those in different concentration of kanamycin antibiotic.

If these seeds are germinated In kanamycin antibiotic medium the transformed seeds will have a normal growth as they have the resistance because of kanamycin resistance gene and the seeds which are not transformed will show decreased growth rate and yellowish colour and may die eventually Because of not being able to produce enough evergy!

611th Day of CUBE chatShaala: Why FLORAL DIP? why not LEAF DIP METHOD?

In this gripping discussion, we came up with Penicillin-resistant gene. how does Penicillin works? And How does Penicillin afffects Cardamine plant?

Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall surrounding the bacterial plasma membrane, preventing osmotic lysis and providing structural integrity. The peptidoglycan wall is continually remodeling during replication and growth. Penicillin inhibits the cross-linking of peptidoglycan in the cell wall.[5] The catalyst for this reaction is penicillin-binding proteins, such as the enzyme DD-transpeptidase. Penicillin’s four-membered β-lactam ring can bind to DD-transpeptidase to irreversibly inactive it. The bacteria, therefore, are unable to build their cell walls even while other proteins continue to break down the wall.[6] As the bacteria cell wall continues to weaken, osmotic pressure pushes water into the cell and kills the cell. Peptidoglycan fragments further destroy the cell wall as these fragments can activate autolysins and hydrolases.

Will the Penicillin-resistant gene break the existing cell wall or newly formed cell wall? What effects can we expect in case of Cardamine?