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Summary of the discussion quoted by @Abhi0703 and @Ashrithapatta
The discussion started with…
Story of Moina in my homelab and adventures in homelab
How to culture and how easy it is to Culture moina in homelab
Introduction of Moina
- An Arthropod
- Belongs to the sub-phylum Crustacea -Crab, prawn, crayfish also included in Crustacea
Smiti is working on Fruitfly and misbah is working on Earthworms how these organisms are classified ?
Earthworms belongs to phylum Annelida and Fruitfly belong to phylum Arthropoda.
What are the characteristics features on which these organisms are classified in different phylla?
Earthworms have segmented body and Arthropods have jointed appendages and a exoskeleton.-smiti
Fruitflies are not segmented?
In developmental stages segments are their and adult stage the segments are not that clearly seen and are somewhat modified into different Tagma(Head, Thorax and Abdomen) to perform specific function but they are also divided into segments
What do be understand by appendages?
A part that is attached to something larger. (Legs, Wings, antennae)
What is the antennae used for?
Sensation of its surroundings, smelling it’s food.
How do we comes to know that something is cooking in the next room?
Smell molecules come to our nose and fall on the Olfactory receptors and it generates a signal!
How is the signal generated?
Neurotransmitters are some chemical or ions that help in mediating these signals from one neuron to another.
the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane when the cell is in a non-excited state is -70mVe but how it is generated and maintained ?
The Na+K±ATPase pump helps to maintain and membrane potential in cells.
The sodium and potassium move against the concentration gradients(through channels to make the number of molecules equal inside and outside the membrane). The Na+ K±ATPase pump maintains the gradient of a higher concentration of sodium extracellularly and a higher level of potassium intracellularly. The sustained concentration gradient is crucial for physiological processes in many organs and has an ongoing role in stabilizing the resting membrane potential of the cell, regulating the cell volume, and cell signal transduction
Physiology, Sodium Potassium Pump - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf
The Na+ which enters travels/diffuse through the neuron decreasing the resting potential across neuron from resting -70 to -60,-40,-30 and there are voltage gated channels between the myelin sheath to help in this transduction so as to it being carried to the next neuron!!
There’s always a potential across the neuron …even in the resting phase ( when there’s no work being done at all) ,this is because of the Na+/K+ pump and this helps maintaining a more negative charge inside as compared to outside the neuron i.e -70mV .
This is important so as to have a gradient all the time, which is important for the living systems helping the influx of ions that transmit a signal .
There are two things simulataneously happening here …
- Resting potential
- Action potential when signal starts …
How is the signal induced ??
Via the receptors
That causes the channels to open and allows the influx of Na+ that decreases the potential from -70mV.
Why is the discontinuous myelin sheath imp ??
For insulation and the gaps ( nodes of tanvier) have the Voltage gated channels that helps in jumping of the signal …( Whats this jumping signal).
Also when we talk about the synapses between neurons …there are two types chemical synapse and electrical synapse …
Chemical - with the help of neurotransmitters present in the presynaptic axon terminal ( these are found when the gap bet. Neurons is more than 25nm.
Electrical synapse - with the help of connexons …it forms a gap junction… so this is seen when the gap bet .two neurons is less than 25nm.