Exploring the Interconnections Between Butterfly Evolution, Taxonomy, and Developmental Biology


How to describe a Butterfly !!!

Cubists got confused several portion while describing a butterfly.

How many legs a butter has !

According to @Divya butterfly do not have legs but @KhushiGupta says butterfly do have legs !!

How can we convince people about that!!

How can we introduce Butterfly in very simple way.

Later While Explaning about the Body parts Cubists again got Confused in Certain portions !!

What actually Ventral, Dorsal ,Posterior and Anterior means !




How can we categorize organisms based on their observable characteristics.


Butterfly - Wikipedia.

Later we came across very interesting Discussion with Arthropods!!!

@shalinisharma98 @bhagwati @KhushiGupta & others

What we meant by Arthropods ,they have joined appendages !!!Where do they joined !!
Do humans have jointed appendages !!!How do we different from Butterflies.

How Ants ,Mosquito, Centipeds and Prawn different in each other!!

Followup discussion on CUBE Whatsapp Group

I found dead butterfly in my college campus Date - 11/08/23 time - 02:44 pm butterfly belong to phylum arthropoda class insecta butterfly have three pairs of jointed legs. Data collector- Bhagwati Sahu

[3:26 pm, 11/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: All insects have joint appendages. Any other characteristic that is more convincing of it being a butterfly and not a moth or a grasshopper or a cockroach?

[3:26 pm, 11/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: Nice picture :+1:

[3:34 pm, 11/08/2023] shalinisharma: How do you convince others that insects have jointed appendages, what is your understanding about it? Because in yesterday’s Chatshaala there was a discussion regarding same where everyone had different ideas. @Rahul CUBE

[3:35 pm, 11/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: What were these different ideas about?

[3:40 pm, 11/08/2023] shalinisharma: Like why we call it as jointed appendages? There were two things that has been discussed.

  1. In arthropods, the leg itself has got the joints which we can visualise by seeing the bend in their leg thats why we are saying it as jointed legs.

  2. The joints in their leg is not visualised but they are joined at some point which is embedded in the thorax region from where they have arised.

[3:45 pm, 11/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: i which case the joints are not visualised?

[3:45 pm, 11/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: I do not understand the second point clearly. Please elaborate. Sorry, I missed the conversation/chatshala

[3:46 pm, 11/08/2023] shalinisharma: In the (2) theory, joints are not outside the body while all three legs are jointed at their roots in the thorax.

Explanation from @shalinisharma98

Chitra Ma’am:
I think there is a confusion in the term used, joined appendages - all three legs joined at the thorax and emerging from one point, and jointed appendages meaning appendages with joints like those of human beings- wrist joint, elbow joint shoulder joint. I think it is jointed appendages and not joined appendages.
And pray that the poor insect is not afflicted with arthritis. :grin:

Collection of insects , insects collect by Students. Defferent type of insects present in bottle.
Photos From Bhagwati.

Where actually the joints attaches to insect’s body ,Is there any specific portion ??or randomly attaches to the segments of the body !?.@Bhagwati Mam @shalinisharma & others

[0:51 pm, 12/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: An arthropod’s body is divided into segments, like we saw with the annelids. In species like millipedes and centipedes, the segments are quite similar to each other (Fig.A). In other species, like an ant, the segments are clustered in major body regions. Insects have an abdomen of several segments and a separate head and separate thorax (Fig.B).

Most segments have a pair of attached jointed appendages. The posterior pairs commonly function as swimming legs (swimmerets), the middle pairs as walking legs, and the anterior pairs as food-getting apparatuses (chelicerae, or maxillae and mandibles) or sensory organs (antennae).
[0:52 pm, 12/08/2023] Rahul CUBE: This might be helpful @Theertha !!

Okey .,Which means Arthropods have segmented body in which Jointed appendages are connected to their segments .@Rahul CUBE @shalinisharma

That was a great helpful discussion for me to understand some basics in Taxonomy.


@Shraddha276 won Best poster Presentation Award from 4th ISEB Conference 2022.

Her topic of poster presentation was about the Evolutionary significance of Cardamine -Psyche intercation.

How do a Butterfly choosing a host plant !!!

According to @Charvi Butterfly choosing hostplant based on their comfort in certain plants,like their size &Shape of leaves etc.
But @Shraddha276 says there are certain compounds in Cardamine is influencing Psyche to lay eggs!!!

Biochemical mystery in Cardamine-Psyche interaction

Selection and shifting of host Plant by Psyche Butterflies (Leptosia nina) through co- evolutionary Interactions.

How evolution comes in picture:
Abstract of Poster Presentation

In this study we report the host range broadening and switching by Psyche butterfly (Leptosia nina).

The reported host plants of Psyche included Cleome (Cleomaceae), Creteva and Capparis sp. (Capparidaceae) but recently, the entire life cycle of Psyche was observed on Cardamine, a member of closely related family Brassicaceae, by CUBists. All these plants species are known to produced Glucosinolates, which are generally toxic to many other butterflies. The Psyche butterfly has evolved to detoxify the glucosinolates and survive on these plants.
Plants and butterflies have co-evolved for their survival. Plants release glucosinolates to protect themselves from herbivores, whereas Psyche caterpillars survive on plants by producing Nitrile Specific Proteins (NSP) which breakdown glucosinolates, neutralizing their toxic effect. Besides, the caterpillars also store toxic glucosinolates as a defence against predators. Our finding suggests that Psyche butterfly has evolved to complete its lifecycle on all plants producing glucosinolates.


COMMON MORMON :Cubists Favorite Butterfly

Host plant and nectar feeding plants !!!

Butterfly choosing some specific plant as Host plant for laying its eggs!!

Coming to common mormon ,Rutaceae members including Curryleaf plant,Lemons plants are the common host plants.

@Charvi From DSC college search for Caterpillars of Common mormon in 1o curryleaf plant and 7 lemon plant !!!But she didnot found any !!

what may be the reason for that!!

Does the time matter!?

Lifecycle of Common mormon

Egg Caterpillar Pupae and Adult .

The larval food plants in the study area included Citrus limon and Murraya koenigii both of the family Rutaceae. The eggs are laid singly, and the hatching time is three days. The larvae pass through five instars .

Autecology of the common mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae) - PubMed.


We mentioned about nectar feeding plants !!

Is that specific to certain butterflies !!!