In the last discussion we came across the Drosophila genome coding for seven several insulin-like peptides, and is secreted from specialized neurons
Here, the question arises how to make diabetic mutants and what factors cause mutation in the Fruit fly so we supposed that mutagens can give rise to the mutations. We discussed different types of mutagens which are classified as physical mutagens, chemical mutagens and biological mutagens.
Physical mutagens include electromagnetic radiation, such as gamma rays, X rays, and UV light, and particle radiation, such as fast and thermal neutrons, beta and alpha particles.
Physical and chemical mutagenesis - PubMed.
Chemical mutagens are standard tools for mutagenesis in a variety of organisms, and they are a primary means of creating mutations in phenotype-based screens in most genetic systems.
Chemical mutagens have also been used successfully in the mutagenesis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.1,2 This approach holds a variety of advantages over mutagenesis in the whole animal.
Several chemical mutagens have been successfully used to mutagenize mouse ES cells, and the potential exists for the use of almost any mutagen.
Chemical Mutagen - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics.
Biological agents of mutation are sources of DNA from elements like transposons and viruses. Transposons are sequences of DNA that can relocate and replicate autonomously. Insertion of a transposon into a DNA sequence can disrupt gene functionality. Transposition is not technically a type of recombination but is mechanistically similar. Transposons often pair with short regions of nucleotide repeats on either side of the transposition sequence.
In this linkage we came up with mobile genetic elements which acknowledges that a form of genetic material known as mobile genetic elements can move about within a genome or be passed from one species or replicon to another. MGEs are present in all living things. In humans, MGEs are thought to make up about 50% of the genome. MGEs have a unique function in evolution. Events involving gene duplication are also possible thanks to MGEs. Protein coding areas can get mutations as a result of MGEs, changing how the protein functions. Additionally, by rearranging genes in the host genome, these methods can produce variety. This is what we understand from the wikipedia reference.
Mobile genetic element (MGE), also known as transposable element (TE), is a type of moving genetic materials which can either move around within a genome or jump across different genomes. MGE movement demonstrates the intra-genome and inter-genomes mobility of the DNA fragments. MGEs play key role in genome evolution, human disease and drug resistance. It is challenging to detect MEGs in genomes because of its repetitive nature but many reference-based and de novo detection approaches have been developed and used by scientific and medical communities to detect and annotate MGEs, which have been widely used to investigate the mechanisms of MGE evolution, human disease and drug resistance.
DNA transposons move from one genomic location to another by a cut-and-paste mechanism. They are powerful forces of genetic change and have played a significant role in the evolution of many genomes. As genetic tools, DNA transposons can be used to introduce a piece of foreign DNA into a genome. Indeed, they have been used for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in different organisms, since these elements are not generally dependent on host factors to mediate their mobility.
P elements are cut-and-paste transposons in the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and several other Drosophila species. The transposition of these elements is catalyzed by an enzyme, the transposase, which is encoded by the structurally complete members of the P -element family
P Element - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics.
In clinical practice, the development of type 2 diabetes in humans is closely related to unhealthy dietary habits. By the same token, a model of type 2 diabetes can also be produced in fruit flies by feeding a diet high in sugar or fat. In 2011, Musselman et al. (50) first found that the high-sugar-diet (HSD) could induce metabolic disorder in fruit fly larvae, which is similar to that of type 2 diabetes patients. The level of Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) in their hemolymph is notably higher than that in the normal-fed animal, but the phosphorylation level of Akt1 remains unchanged. These two indications suggest that the Insulin pathway is not activated by high ILPs level. In other words, it is insulin resistance that occurs and results in a phenotype similar to that of human type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia.