Olfactory sensor

          OLFACTORY SENSOR

As we know we all use smartphone which have many sensors like
For eyes-camera
For mouth & ear -sound & speaker
Like that no sensor for taste and smell so I decided to get that and deep thought on that
So I get idea about that after that I searched on Google about that and found that 1st thought this come in 1914 Alexander Bell. Then enose is made but their are big machine and no proper model I want to create it also NASA is using that model in International space station but they can sense only 4 sense.
So I want to make that smell sensor. So I need some guidance.

       THE BIG PICTURE

Use of this smell can be categorised in three parts theta,beta & alpha.

:diamonds:THETA- to make daily small compact device as a speaker sensor which can give us fragrance and auroma of all things which we will watching on our tv and phones for example
1)when we watch any recipe on tv we sense audio video. But we not get smell by this application we will sense it.
2) to make device which can produce all type of smell.

:diamonds:BETA- to use this sensor in medical and security for example

  1. by using this sensor we can detect code of all smell which will then help to categorised them by some name like IUPAC name of chemical components by this we can detect any supisious element in air which will lead to theft detection like corona virus and ebola and all type.
    2)we can use this sensor in security like for detecting hazardous material and decoding bio attacks.

:diamonds:ALPHA- this is the predator version of this sensor we can use it at commercial level for example
1)using our sensor and increasing its capacity like dog and other animals and storing this data in binary form. And using it for good cause.
2) in space reasearch we can use this sensor for example Mars rover prseverance has first time audio sensor like that in further operation in ISRO we can use smell sensor as well which will work as human :nose: nose which will detect all the atmosphere like nose though there is not an atmosphere but after further result we can get idea about life in another planet because we breathe through nose :nose: and by using as a sensor we not need any mission to go come with sample we can detect and research on that outer space and can find life.

WORK to do

So, we need to find fundamental concept about olfactory(smell) and gustatory(taste) sensors of humans
And after that like we made camera in light perceptive we made microphone :microphone: speaker :loud_sound: on the basis of air.
So, what are the factors responsible for making us smell and producing some taste?
So, we have to discuss this and how the brain :brain: is used to carry out smell sensation.
Specialized cells in the nose pick up odorants, airborne odour molecule. Hair like cilia at the tip of sensory cells which initiates neural response. And this allows us to smell and taste to detect the flavours of food.
Reference-

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Screenshot_20201116-173543

Yesterday and today we further discussed about olfactory sensors implementation.
We have covered lot more points to make actual sensor process easier. As you can see on above whiteboard we have covered points like
:black_small_square: Human smell and taste perception
:black_small_square: Exact meaning of smelling and tasting
:black_small_square: How we smell and taste?
:black_small_square: Background processing
:black_small_square: Role of axon
:black_small_square: Working of other electronic sensor
:black_small_square: Artificial neural sensor
:black_small_square: Building database
:black_small_square: Producing Artificial smell creator
:black_small_square: Nano technology model
:black_small_square: Wider project imputation

▪️ Human smell and taste perception

Meaning of tasting and smelling any chemical constituents of substance is known as perception of flavour.
Flavour contents composition of various parameters like various contents, sensitivity and specificity. For gustatory :tongue: sensor the parameters are more enhanced, like pressure, temperature, texture and etc.

▪️ Exact meaning of smelling and tasting

When we smell or taste something we are doing different process all together but here is the connection between olfactory​:nose: sensor and gustatory :tongue: sensor, it is perception of flavour.
For example -

• We have to sniff flavour of food and then odarant (molecule of smell) will pass through nose. But flavour perception is not continuous flow of molecules it has some duration and intensity.

• When we taste any substance flavour on our tongue :tongue: we get various factor like Pressure, temperature, texture and five different taste like sour, bitter, sweet, salty, umami (special).

▪️ How we smell and taste?

• Smell- when we sniff molecule of flavour it is collected in our nose :nose: at the tip of hair like cilia inside the nose and this molecule sensenation further goes to brain. We have billions of olfactory receptor.

• Taste- when we taste any flavour we have particular section for 5 tastes in our toungue :tongue:. In that we have 5k to 10k taste buds. Taste buds are basically the papillae (like this {:cactus:} it is small elevated pores for sensation)

▪️ Background processing

For smell when sniff molecule and this sensation from nose is transfer through brain by neuron network. The same network reponsible for reflex action. When this neuron carries sensation in brain :brain: it reach to middle part of forehead (point between eyes :eyes:)
Where processing of sensation begins this message then pass through chemical receptors of brain by transferring them from solid to liquid medium in upper cortex of the brain :brain: and in special side part of brain transfer this signal through axons to spinal cord to complete reflex action and create perception of smell.
In smell we get lot of depth of the smell.
But is taste we get only 5 tastes but we get different parameters of substance.
Like for olfactory :nose: sensor, we have different aspect of gustatory :tongue: sensor processing it has different brain lobs and parts which create perception of flavour.

▪️ Role of axon

Axon are the special sensory neural network which is responsible for all sensation in the human body system.
When we touch, see, hear, smell, taste it is because of this strong neural network. They are billions of this present throughout in human body.

Axon

They have dendrites on the the tip and by they connect with each other form long network. Axon is mainly responsible creating impulse by conducting electric charge through it.
Human can sense fastly to 45 milliseconds and slowly to 180 milliseconds. It depends upon fat present on the side of axon if fats are more impulse will not create conduction rapidly and we will response slowly. Because of this old or ill person lost sensitivity of taste, smell and other sensation. So to conduct electric charge quickly we must have narrow hollow space through which current can flow easily, like water flows from pipe easily when it is not chocked.
Screenshot_20201116-173548

▪️ Working of other electronic sensor

To make olfactory :nose: sensor we have to first see the others sensor which are alternatives of other human body system.
Like for example for eyes and ears we have sound and camera sensors. In :camera: like eyes the light is pass through our eyes and it reflects on backside of eyes screen that signal of light is then conducted into electrical impulses and this process in brain converts and process light sensitivity and specificity to create perception of vision. Same for :loud_sound: when we hear something the vibration of sounds strikes on ear :ear: drums and this process then converted into perception of sound.

▪️ Artificial neural sensor

To create model sensor like camera :camera_flash: we have choose different aspects of chemical composition like we collect light aspects for :camera:. To make that we have to use universal element of periodic table for calibration. Then we have to find different diamagnetic, ferromagnetic, electric conductivity and etc properties of element. Then we have to make systematic approach for properties which can be use for perceiving flavour sensation i.e. smell :nose:.

▪️ Building database

So, now we know the parameters and how can use properties of element to generate smell detection prototype. But when we get this it is limited to only one element but their are 118 elements in periodic table. Then we have to carry out further research to search all properties of all elements which we know. We can get all properties behaviour in column and periods in periodic table.

By collecting measurements we will get different patterns for different elements. Now database works starts so,

• We have to combine this element with each other, then we have to group them in order by periodic table and collect all measurements and patterns and we have to cross verify many times to achieve supreme accuracy.

• Now like this further we have to go for like finding NaCl and sugar smell we have to calculate and collect different parameters data points.

• After all this we will get to final data collection points which is real life samples like perception of tea :coffee:. We have to find chemical composition and chemical reaction formula for tea.
For example for :coffee: we need water, milk, tea powder, sugar.
So, formula for tea will be look like this

Schematic-of-chemical-reaction-of-TEA-in-formation-of-the-compounds

▪️ Producing Artificial smell creator

So, if we create huge database then we will deeply know the exact pattern or we will get idea about every element, mixture of element, involvement of chemical reaction. By collecting this data aspects we can associate it to create artificial olfaction. By doing this we can produce smell which will help to perceive flavours.

▪️ Nano technology model

By using Nano technology model and small chips and microprocessor we have to convert it into small sensor.

▪️ Wider project imputation

When we create full fledged sensor by following all the steps we can use it in all every aspects which requires :nose: to sense the condition of environment.

So, that’s the discussion going on in makers space from 2days. Please join the webinar or contribute through chat to convert dream into realistic sensor which we can use as we think.

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