Seed Germination study in Green peas:CUBE SAPEKHATI

Photo :15/04/2024.
on 16th April ,Biswayini transferred plants to CUBE Sapekhati.

Setup of three pea seedlings with smooth, green and wrinkled seed characters in pots. Started by Biswayini Tudu , 9th standard, Cube Sapekhati. Date of transfer 24th April2024. Photo Susanta Tanti.

Leaves changing its color , Cube Sapekhati Date 25th April 2024

Congratulations and thanks to Biswayini & CUBE Sapekhati. That was a wonderful discussion. @biswayini @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Chithra Ma’am⁩ & others.Are we repeating Mendel’s work ? @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ @⁨Kashyap Sapekhati⁩ & others.

What is the season for cultivating pea plants ? What all seasons are there ? @biswayini @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Chithra Ma’am⁩ @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ & others .

What are the light response in plants ?How do a dark grown plant get changes its morphology when it place in light ? How does sunlight helping in green coloration of leaves ? @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Chithra Ma’am⁩ & others.

Reference shared:

[24/04, 9:41 pm] Theertha: Aastha
8:43 PM
average duration of the period from emergence to the onset of flowering ranged from 27 to 53 days for dry peas, from 28 to 54 for garden peas,Phenotypic traits differentiating the genetic resources of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by the type of use - PMC
[24/04, 9:41 pm] Theertha: Theertha M.D.
8:49 PM
Sow the seeds during February - March and October - November in plains. Treat the seeds with Trichoderma@ 4 g/kg or Thiram or Captan@ 2 g/kg of seeds a to avoid seed borne diseases.

Horticulture :: Vegetables:: Peas.
[24/04, 9:41 pm] Theertha: Aastha
8:54 PM
Phenotypic traits differentiating the genetic resources of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by the type of use - PMC. 27-53 days - flowering
[24/04, 9:41 pm] Theertha: Himanshu Joshi
9:18 PM
Algae and plant cells have double-membrane bound organelles called plastids. There are three types of Plastids— Chloroplasts, Leucoplasts, and Chromoplasts. Chloroplasts are a type of plastids that are involved in photosynthesis. Chromoplasts store pigments such as carotenoids. The leucoplasts are present in non-photosynthetic tissues of plants and store proteins, starches and oils.

[24/04, 9:41 pm] Theertha: Abhijeet Singh
9:26 PM
In some plants, chlorophyll is derived from glutamate and is synthesised along a branched biosynthetic pathway that is shared with heme and siroheme.[28][29][30] Chlorophyll synthase[31] is the enzyme that completes the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a:[32][33]

chlorophyllide a + phytyl diphosphate
⇌{\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } chlorophyll a + diphosphate
This conversion forms an ester of the carboxylic acid group in chlorophyllide a with the 20-carbon diterpene alcohol phytol. Chlorophyll b is made by the same enzyme acting on chlorophyllide b. The same is known for chlorophyll d and f, both made from corresponding chlorophyllides ultimately made from chlorophyllide a.[34]Chlorophyll - Wikipedia
[24/04, 9:42 pm] Theertha: Himanshu Joshi
9:26 PM
Encyclopedia Britannica

Chloroplasts play a key role in the process of photosynthesis. Learn about photosynthesis’s light reaction in the grana and thylakoid membrane and dark reaction in the stroma.
See all videos for this article
Chloroplasts are a type of plastid—a round, oval, or disk-shaped body that is involved in the synthesis and storage of foodstuffs. Chloroplasts are distinguished from other types of plastids by their green colour, which results from the presence of two pigments, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. A function of those pigments is to absorb light energy for the process of photosynthesis. Other pigments, such as carotenoids, are also present in chloroplasts and serve as accessory pigments, trapping solar energy and passing it to chlorophyll. In plants, chloroplasts occur in all green tissues, though they are concentrated particularly in the parenchyma cells of the leaf mesophyll.
[24/04, 9:42 pm] Theertha: Arunan MC
9:42 PM
"When we trace back the chlorophyll synthesis pathway we see that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is formed from Glu. This conversion of Glu to ALA is well-documented in literature; however, the source of chloroplastic Glu is not explicitly mentioned in the existing literature to describe the complete chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and also how much of the central carbon metabolism from other compartments are involved in it, is also not studied in detail. Therefore, we curated the existing genome scale metabolic model of rice leaf10 and consequently studied the complete chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. Our analysis established how the inorganic nutrients are utilized through a series of biochemical reactions localized in different cellular compartments to synthesize chlorophyll. "
Revisiting the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway using genome scale metabolic model of Oryza sativa japonica | Scientific Reports.


Open space vs Lab( without sunlight). Does sunlight reduce increase lenght ? The right seedling without chlorophyll attain a lenght of 25 cm after 48 hours whereas the plant with chlorophyll increase onle 2 cm in 48 hours? Cube lab sapekhati date : 30th march 2024. Collaborators Dinanath, Sudarshina, Sumixna, Priyangshi, Mousumi and others.

6 gram seeds at 7 am . Date :29/3 location:: Balikhatia, Assam . Photo::Mayuri Gogoi . This plant’s height is 19 cm now .

Kept in darkness, still growing without chlorophyll! The longest one reach 30 cm. Cube Lab Sapekhati, Photo Susanta Tanti date 7/4/24.

[02/04, 9:51 am] Chithra Ma’am: Etiolation /iːtiəˈleɪʃən/ is a process in flowering plants grown in partial or complete absence of light.[1] It is characterized by long, weak stems; smaller leaves due to longer internodes; and a pale yellow color (chlorosis). The development of seedlings in the dark is known as “skotomorphogenesis” and leads to etiolated seedlings.
Etiolation increases the likelihood that a plant will reach a light source, often from under the soil, leaf litter, or shade from competing plants. The growing tips are strongly attracted to light and will elongate towards it. The pale color results from a lack of chlorophyll.

[25/04, 9:44 am] Theertha: De-Etiolation
Under the soil, germinating seedlings undergo etiolation with long hypocotyls and closed cotyledons, lacking chlorophylls and functional chloroplasts (i.e., skotomorphogenesis). Upon emerging from the soil and reaching light, the etiolated seedlings undergo de-etiolation, which includes cotyledon opening, chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and subsequently autotrophic growth (i.e., photomorphogenesis) [42]. Phytochromes and four PIF members (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, PIF5) play a central role in these etiolation and de-etiolation events, along with other regulators. Upon FR and R light exposure, phyA and phyB undergo a nuclear translocation, which leads to phosphorylation and rapid degradation of PIFs, the negative transcription regulators in photomorphogenic development [43]. Thus, the removal of functional PIFs releases the genome-wide suppression of transcription, promoting photomorphogenesis Regulation of Photomorphogenic Development by Plant Phytochromes - PMC.
[25/04, 9:45 am] Theertha: Chloroplast Development
In plants, the chloroplasts are crucial for their growth. The plastids not only function in the performance of photosynthesis, but also sense environmental stimuli [74]. In addition, many biochemical processes take place in chloroplasts, such as biosynthesis of pigments, lipids, and hormones. Chloroplasts have their own genome and RNA polymerase. Plastids of vascular plants contain two types of RNA polymerases, a plastid-encoded, bacterial-type multi-subunit RNA polymerase called PEP (plastid-encoded polymerase) and a nuclear-encoded, phage-type single-subunit RNA polymerase called NEP (nuclear-encoded polymerase) [75]. NEP functions in transcribing mainly plastid-encoded housekeeping genes, plastid ribosomal RNAs, and subunits of PEP. In contrast, PEP transcribes mostly photosynthesis-related and tRNA genes. The PEP enzyme needs to interact with nuclear-encoded SIGs (sigma factors) for proper promoter recognition and also with PAPs (PEP-associated proteins) for chloroplast biogenesis [75].

The light signal is important for the biogenesis and development of chloroplasts (Figure 3). To explain how the light signal is transferred from the nucleus to chloroplasts, an anterograde pathway has been proposed. This pathway shows how downstream signals of phyB can regulate the chloroplast gene expression. Upon light activation, the active phytochromes trigger light-dependent PEP assembly by forming photobodies, and destabilizing PIFs [76]. Following the degradation of PIFs, repression in the promoters of PhANGs (photosynthesis-associated nuclear-encoded genes) is released, allowing SIGs and PAPs to be expressed. Next, SIGs and PAPs form a complex with PEP for the transcription of PhANGs, which allows anterograde signaling in plastid gene expression [76,77].Regulation of Photomorphogenic Development by Plant Phytochromes - PMC.

Model of
nucleus-to-plastid anterograde signaling for initiating chloroplast biogenesis. Phytochrome activates the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase for chloroplast biogenesis via nucleus-to-plastid signaling - PubMed

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When I joined the discussion was about pea seeds that Biswayini has kept for Germination on 10th April. The seeds were of Green, Wrinkled, and Smooth.

Yesterday these seeds were transferred to Sapekhati School where Susanta Sir potted them in soil.

The question arises in how many days these plants will give the next generation seeds? Is this the season for growing pea ? So would it able to produce flowers at all?

After discussing we found that Between 27-53 days we expect flowers normally. So Biswayini made a hypothesis that today she won’t be able to get the flowers on pea plants.

Another hypothesis is that the plants which are now pale in color will convert into green as they are kept in place where they will get ambient sunlight.

So how does sunlight help in Synthesis of Chlorophyll?

Which are other plant pigments which help Chlorophyll to absorb solar energy and where are these pigments stored?

Chloroplast, Chromoplast and Leucoplast contains which types of compounds?

Do every plastid contain their own DNA?

These were the major questions towards the end to the session.

Let’s continue the discussion @Theertha CUBE @Kiran Di @Chitralekha Ma’am Cube @Himanshu CUBE @Aastha Cube Delhi @Aditya cube and others…

Seed germination in white pea by Mayuri,CUBE Sapekhati.Post made by Mayuri in CUBE groups:

A new set up of white peas in my HOME LAB ( Balikhatia):: i soaked 20 white peas in a bowl. Date:2/4 Time:5.30pm location: Balikhatia, Mayuri Gogoi.

White peas at 10.30 am :: mene peas ko 10.30 am ko paani se nikal Diya aur ek bowl me transfer kar diaa… Date :3/4 location: balikhetia, assam. Photo: Mayuri Gogoi.

20 White peas at 2 pm Date:6/4 location: Balikhatia,Assam. Photo: Mayuri Gogoi (85% germinated)

20 white peas at 9.30 pm Date:9/4 location: Balikhetia, Assam. Photo: Mayuri Gogoi.

White peas plants. Date : 21/4 location:balikhetia,Assam. Photo: Mayuri gogoi

White peas plants. Date : 21/4 location:balikhetia,Assam. Photo: Mayuri gogoi

Congratulations to CUBE Sapekhati for initiating Mendel’s favorite garden pea germination in CUBE labs. What were the characteristics Mendel used? What were the characters CUBE Sapekhati used while selecting seeds? what is our future plans? @Kiran Ma’am @Arunan sir :smiling_face: @Susanta Tanti CUBE @~Ajita Banerjee @~Aastha & others.

What is the morphology of Garden peas (Pisum sativum)?

How do its leaves look?@Mayuri CUBE sapekhati @Susanta Tanti CUBE

TINKE moments for me: A leaf-like structure present in the petiole and stem ie, stipules are present in garden peas.

We also observed different morphologies of stipules in garden peas and in cow beans. Could this be a new characteristic that we can add to Mendel’s study while repeating this?@Susanta Tanti CUBE @biswayini @Kashyap Sapekhati @Abhijeet CUBE & others.

Pisum sativum : Herbarium sheet.

Cow pea

[11:07 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha:
[11:08 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha: Psium sativum L. is a cool-season annual vine that is smooth and has a bluish- green waxy appearance. Vines can be up to 9 ft long, however modern cultivars have shorter vines, about 2 ft long. › filesPDF
Morphological and Anatomical characteristics of Pisum sativum L
[11:08 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha:
[11:08 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha:
[11:09 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha: Morphology of Cow pea plant.
[11:09 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha: French beans
[11:09 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha: Chawli beans | Lion Foods India
[11:09 pm, 29/4/2024] Theertha: fava beans or bakla : a bean rich in L-dopa | recipe of bakla ki subzi

Photo @Susanta_Tanti

Group Photographs of the participants:

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CUBE Homelab observations by @Arunan .

Chauli seedlings 23 April 2024 Madel Thivim Goa Photo mcarunan

Chauli seedlings on 4th May 2024 Madel, Thivim, Goa in less than two weeks. Photo mcarunan

Another set of Chauli seedlings on 6th May 2024 Madel, Thivim, Goa about two weeks after sowing Photo mcarunan

Second set of Chauli seedlings with more or less regular watering climbing on 20th day, on 13 May 2024 Madel, Thivim, Goa Photo mcarunan