Seed/grain germination research

Can we conduct a seed germination study in home labs?

Yes, Cubists from different parts of the country were germinating seeds such as green gram, Bengal gram, Cardamine, and others.

Is there any difference in germination?

Do all seeds germinate alike?

Epigeal germination in Green gram.
Photo : Vijaya tilak.

Hypogeal germination in cardamine.
Photo : Theertha
Labelling: @Chitralekha

Hypogeal germination in Luffa.
Photo : @Susanta_Tanti
Labelling: @Chitralekha

Seed germination study in green gram by @kashyap.
Objective: To check the time taken for seed germination in green gram.

Whiteboard screenshots summaries the seed germination setup & observations of kashyap.(9th standard student from CUBE Sapekhati).



Ye photo 18 tarikh 9:30PM ka photo ha mana 20 moong seeds germination hona ka liya rakh dia tha.


Ye seeds thora germinate hona suru kar diya hai.time:7:30 date:19/3/24 photo kashyap Das. Seed coat broken:4/20=20%

Ye seeds thora germinate hua.12 hours ho gaya esliye mena Pani se nikal kar tissupaper ke upr rakh diya.time:9:30AM date:19/3/24. photo: kashyap Das.
Seed coat broken:8/20=40%

Ye seeds radical ulana ka suru or bara bhi ho gaya. Time:7:30PM date:19/3/24 photo kashyap Das.
Seed coat broken.:3/20

Summary of First setup:

Second setup:


2nd setup mana 20 tarikh sa start kiya tha morning 7:30AM sa.Photo : kashyap

Ye photo 3:20 PM ka ha 20 tarikh thora ful na suru kar diya hai.


7 were not germinated.13/20 germinated .

Epigeal germination [ cardamine ]
Photo: Theertha.

  • Seed Germination takes place above the soil.
  • Cotyledon out of the soil
  • Hypocotyl grows and large in size.

Hypogeal germination [ Bengal Gram ]

  • Seed Germination takes place below the soil.
  • Cotyledon present in soil
  • Epicotyl grows.

Let’s read/see some research papers related to seed germination!?

Process of pollination:


Pollen transferred to the micropyle of embryosac through pollentube ,where sperm cells fuse to egg to form zygote .

Picture from :

Later the embryo development occur.
There are two types of seeds.
1)Dicot & 2) Monocot .

Picture from :

Germination is the process from the first water uptake by the dry seed to the emer- gence of the radicle, which is the embryonic root of the plant


The early seed and seedling life stages of plants. Germination is defined as the radicle emerging from the seed (first panel) whereas seedling emergence occurs when the cotyledon(s) of the seedling penetrates the soil surface (second panel). Establishment occurs when a seedling has transitioned from relying on the seed reserves to being a photosynthetic autotroph (third panel).

Mechanism of Seed Germination

Generally, germination of seeds takes three phases.

Phase-I: Seed imbibition phase, in which quick water uptake involves in apoplastic spaces through forces driven
by the Seed.

Phase-II: Activation Phase, in which re-establishment of metabolic activities (protein synthesis takes place) occurs.

Phase-III: Germination phase, where cell elongation and radicle emergence occurs. But before ending of Phase- II germination remains a reversible process because seeds may be dried again and remains alive during storage
which re-initiate germination under suitable condition.

Hypogeal germination implies that the cotyledons stay below the ground. The epicotyl (part of the stem above the cotyledon) grows, while the hypocotyl (part of the stem below the cotyledon) remains in the same place where the seed was first placed. The hypocotyl neither move to upward nor transforms into 1 pair of leaves of the seedling. Then the radicle comes out and follow geotropism. In the meantime, the Epicotyl pushes the plumule above the ground.

Epigeal germination implies that the cotyledons are pushed above ground. The hypocotyl elongates while the epicotyl remains the same place where the Seed was first placed. Cotyledon emerge above the soil surface by elongation of hypocotyl and generally becomes green. The radicle comes up and bends down to earth. The development of plumule to form shoot is delayed a bit.

Schematic representation (hand drawn by SS) of different parts of seeds and seed germination stages. Seeds and germination stages of dicotyledonous (chickpea) and monocotyledonous (maize) plants have been shown in upper and lower panels, respectively.

How do a monocot & dicot seed looks?