Chatshaala Discussions :15/10/2023 to 31/10/2023

These are the short summaries of the discussion made by Cubists in WhatsApp groups.


Shraddha wrote,

1St floral dip method performed in CUBE by ~Shalini Lal⁩ ma’am and ⁨Rechel CUBE⁩ on Cardamine plants and ~Nazish⁩ who study control part of floral dip method. During discussion, we stuck at a question that why only 50 mg/L solution is showing yellow seedlings and not 70 mg/L and 90mg /L solution???

CUBist are using Cardamine plants to study genetic engineering, specifically floral dip method. For performing floral dip method, Kanamycin resistance gene are used as selection marker to select seeds with Kanamycin resistance gene. For selection of transform seeds, we can germinate seeds in water with Kanamycin antibiotics then we can find out transformed seeds from non transform seeds.

Cardamine plants use as potential alternative for Arabidopsis, which one of the plant model organism.

Reference shared in Chatshaala discussion:


On 16/10/2023 Chatshaala, the discussion was about the waterfleas that was collected by Kashyap and we also discussed about the culture-setup of waterfleas in CUBE Sapekhati.

Cubists from CUBE Sapekhati currently making cyclops as a model system and they are curious to know whether cyclops also show red color while adding more amount of milk in culture bottle.

Milk is the source of food for Bacteria that present in the culture bottle , moina takes these bacteria as a food .while adding more amount of milk, bacterias multiplying in high number and the amount of oxygen available for moina decreases & that cause moina to Red .

Susanta sir also says can we found out the presence of hydra in nature water bodies such as pond ,lake and all.

Later we also discussed about the seed germination study in cardamine.CUBE pamgarh currently interested to study about the seed germination in cardamine.

Reference shared in Chatshaala:

Hydra occur in most permanent bodies of fresh water. They are usually more abundant in quiet water than in swiftly moving water. They are often abundant on water plants at all levels of a pond or lake. When plants are not abundant, hydra are most numerous on the undersides of sticks and leaves on the bottom.

"From limbs to leaves: common themes in evolutionary diversification of organ form · Full text

Journal: Frontiers in Genetics, 2015

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

Authors: Remco A. Mentink, Miltos Tsiantis"

“An open problem in biology is to derive general principles that capture how morphogenesis evolved to generate diverse forms in different organisms. Here we discuss recent work investigating the morphogenetic basis for digit loss in vertebrate limbs and variation in form of marginal outgrowths of angiosperm (flowering plant) leaves. Two pathways underlie digit loss in vertebrate limbs.”,in%20vertebrate%20limbs.


Summary written by sakshi

So today we started discussing about Viruses
We had this presentation today in our college about plant virus and i tried to explain all about TUNGRO VIRUS…

Tungro virus is basically seen on rice plant and from the infected plant it is transmitted to other plants by leaf hoppers but the questions arised was…

How does this rice plant originally get this tungro virus??

And while transmitting the virus to other plants why does leafhoppers don’t get affected??

So here we tried to solve this mystery with the help of our known virus which is Covid-19

How can we relate covid 19 to tungro virus :thinking:

In corona virus also there is bat which is a vector so there also we are trying to find whether what is the original source of virus bat or human ???

Then we tried to explain that how a corona virus can be transmitted fron one infected human to a healthy human being…

So the corona virus is inhaled by a normal human being then it travels through the nose the to the wind pipe and then to the alveoli(air sacs) present in the lungs.
In my understanding of the alveoli there are capillaries present which transport oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in and out of the body through diffusion.
In this process the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the other parts of the body and pulmonary veins carries deoxygenated blood out of the body.

Now i didn’t like anatomy much in my lower classes🥴 so i didn’t knew much anatomical terms today i was very confused about them but discussing it in chatshala was fun and interesting.
TINKE(This i never knew earlier) moment for me :sweat_smile:
There are 2 different pipes for transport for air and food to the body…
Food pipe is known as Esophagus whereas wind pipe is known as Respiratory tract …I guess

Please correct me if i am wrong🤪

Write-up made by shalinisharma98

Discussion about gas exchange and blood flow from heart to different parts of body.

Gas we breathe in through nose goes to lungs through windpipe and in lungs we have many branched structure of alveoli which will have blood vessel (capillaries) adjacent to it. So, gas exchange will occur from alveoli to blood vessel. For eg., If blood is carrying deoxygenated blood which means blood have higher concentration of CO2 and at the time of breathing alveoli is having higher amount of O2. Now, O2 from alveoli will go to blood vessel and CO2 from blood vessel go to alveoli.

:sparkles: How the blood is reaching to our finger tip?

:sparkles: How gas exchange in alveoli is occuring?

:sparkles: Does capillary a branched structure? If yes, how it is different from arteries and veins?
:sparkles: How blood is flowing through heart and reaching to every cell of our body?

Chatshaala discussion:18/10/2023

Discussion was led by sakshi about her self sustainable moina culture .Also Cubists made a comparitive study between prawn ,moina , cyclops and lobster.

sakshiconsultant2002 explains:

As i was having only one culture of self sustainable moina i had to make more so on 25th july 2023 i made subcultures of moina but i was feeding milk to those subcultures…

Procedure of making subcultures

:black_small_square:Keep the water for dechlorination a day before making subcultures
:black_small_square:Take a 250 ml of bisleri water bottle(transparent in which moinas can be visible)
:black_small_square:Add dechlorinated water of about 200 ml.
:black_small_square:Add 5 moinas from the original culture.
:black_small_square:Add a drop of milk daily to the culture.

This is the procedure i followed for making subcultures.


Cubists had an interesting discussion about how do transparent moina turned red color.And we also discussed about the role of Hemoglobin and their influence in red coloration.

Of the four known globin genes that exist in the fresh-water crustacean Daphnia magna, several are individually induced by hypoxia, lending pale normoxic animals a visible red color when challenged by oxygen deprivation. The promoter regions of the Daphnia globin genes each contain numerous hypoxia response elements (HREs) as potential binding sites for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). .TINKE MOMENT TO ME

Chatshaala Discussion:20/10/2023


:seedling: Arunan sir⁩ Collected 4 caterpillars from a chamba plant .

:seedling:While describing about the setup & photo of Caterpillar sweety came up with a very interesting question caterpillar ko leaves se kya milta hai?

:seedling:We discussed about the nutrients that we will get from our food vs the food of Caterpillar in those leaves .Lahari CUBE⁩ sweety ⁨Kiran Mam⁩ Chithra Mam⁩ & others.

:seedling:Are we Seeing something interesting in this question??

:seedling: *Can we connect that to the food of Caterpillar to the importance of host plants?*⁨Shraddha CUBE⁩ Seema CUBE⁩ Seethalakhmi⁩ & others

:seedling: Congratulations sweety for asking such pure questions that came from a pure mind, unafraid to inquireSusanta Tanti CUBE⁩ ⁨Kiran Mam⁩ ~Sweety Shrimali⁩ ⁨Lahari CUBE⁩ ⁨Chithra Mam⁩ & others .

Let’s learn some basic biochemistry sweety ⁨Tiku Kashyap⁩ & others .how do starch different from cellulose? What does Alpha & beta bond stands for ? ⁨Kiran Mam⁩ ⁨Charvi DSC⁩ Abhijeet CUBE⁩ & others .


Cellulose, the major complex polysaccharide present in plant tissue, cannot be digested by most insects. Carbohydrate digestion begins with the action of α-amylase, an enzyme present in the salivary gland secretions of many insects.

Alimentary Canal and Digestion | SpringerLink

Springer › …

Summary written by Charvi

In Today’s chatshala we started with the question how the study of seed germination has an influence of biostatistics. Initially ⁨Theertha⁩ tried developing an experiment of how she would want to study effect of magnetic field on seed germination, where her hypothesis was seed germination rate should be higher in test than control.

here she tried explaining her experimental setup that she tried to design

We now started off with ⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ experiment that she performed with the cardamine seeds . Her Hypothesis was, yellow colored cardamine will show higher germinate than brown seeds. We also addressed the difference between SAMPLE and POPULATION? Theertha⁩ ⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ ⁨Anisha Tandan CUBE⁩ ⁨~Khushi :smile::smiling_face::hugs:⁩ @⁨CHINTAN GALA CUBE⁩ what do you think?


Shraddha writes;

Are Agar and nutrient agar same??. Agar is a made up of polysaccharides; nothing but carbohydrates. Can bacteria use agar as source of carbohydrates?

How to culture E.coli bacteria? Can we add an antibiotic in culturing medium to culture bacteria ? ⁨Lahari CUBE⁩ ⁨Chithra Mam⁩ ⁨~Saida Sayyed⁩ Why we add an antibiotics in culturing media of transgenic bacteria but not in culture having non transgenic bacteria?

Why agar used in microbiology world? What is main role of agar in culturing microbes? ⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ Janhvi Deshmukh⁩ and others…

Agar is firmer and stronger and is not easily degraded by most bacteria. Those that degrade it, has three ways of degradation: The first way is disruption of the double helical structure without the breakdown of the polymer.
Studies on agarolytic bacterial isolates from agricultural and industrial soil - PMC.

Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used as a solid medium for growing various microbes. Agar was first described for use in microbiology in 1882 by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, an assistant working in Robert Koch’s laboratory, on the suggestion of his wife Fanny Hesse.[20][21] Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying.[22]


Summary by Charvi

Today we started of with discussing about the measurements, What organisms can be of size 1 or less than 1 cm, or just a few millimeter(mm)? The 1st thought that came to @enas, our mind was Ants. What other organisms can be of size 1 or less than 1 cm, or just a few millimeter(mm)? ⁨Theertha⁩ Dhanraj CUBE⁩ ⁨Shraddha CUBE⁩ and others?

Other than ants what all insects can we find in our homes? FRUIT FLIES, a6 times Nobel prize winning organism. But, what was the 1st noble prize was? With the help of Arunan sir⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ we discussed about the award winning work done by Morgan in finding the role of chromosome with the help of drosophila. W e also addressed some of the questions like how to differentiate between Male and Female drosophila. and can we say that white eyed fruit fly is male whereas red eyed is female? what do you think @⁨CHINTAN GALA CUBE⁩ @⁨Smiti CUBE⁩ @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨~Vijaya Chakravarty⁩ @⁨~̇Vatsal Savla⁩ and others .We also planned to observe fruitflies and see which one the red eyed or white eyed fruitflied are more common and also share photos @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨Arunan sir⁩ , we would love to have more collaborations.


Gaps and Misconceptions in understanding milimeter and Micrometer from the continuation of yesterday’s Chatshaala ,we discussed about the problems that faced by @⁨Charvi DSC⁩ ,@⁨Enas CUBE⁩ & others .why are we confused about terms like microns ,nanometer & al .why biology students * are afraid of there a way by which we can connect the biology to mathamatics!? @⁨Kiran Mam⁩ @⁨shalinisharma⁩ @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ & others .

Can we correlate size of the living components such as virus, bacteria !? Is that a easy way to connect measurements to organisms ( mathematics in biology) @⁨shalinisharma⁩ @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ & others.

Seed germination study in cardamine Revealing the secret behind the cardamine Seed germination in Homelab cherukkad, Kozhikode after 46days! I made a cold treatment on cardamine seeds on 18/09/2023 till 21/09/2023 (kept setup A on refrigerator).on 23rd set 100% seeds were germinated.@⁨~Nagarjun Thota⁩ can you also try to do the same for your setup A of experiments.what actually seed dormacy is ? Do our experiments shows anything interesting @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ .@⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨~Nagarjun Thota⁩ & me were started seed germination setup ~7/09/2023 .@⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ ’ s seeds were germinated with in a week but ours is not ? @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ what do you think the reason behind? .@⁨shalinisharma⁩ @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Kiran Mam⁩ & others

SEED GERMINATION STUDY PREDICTION CONTEST WINNERS *@⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ & @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ * . Congratulations to both :clap::clap::clap::clap::seedling::seedling:.I will send you the Gifts (precious Cardamine seeds ) soon .

“Working with a study group can sometimes help understand the subject better than doing everything alone. Peer learning is more helpful to the students particularly those who suffer from math phobia.”
Math phobia: Causes and remedies.


Discussion was about the culture of chlorohydra,Snail and fruitflies in homelabs .Cubists from CUBE Sapekhati & CUBE pamgarh was actively involved in the discussions.

Reference SHARED:

Chatshaala :26/10/2023

A great beginning of olfactometer.@⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨~nidhidevdas20⁩ & others please give a short summary of today’s Chatshaala discussions. congratulations to @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Priti CUBE⁩ @⁨Kiran Mam⁩ @⁨Arunan sir⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨~nidhidevdas20⁩ @⁨~Thikan :smiling_face_with_three_hearts:⁩ & others

Written by @bhagwatisahu

Today we are discussed the feeding behavior of a snail. To do this study, we made a circle and placed a water drop on the north side of the circle and cucumber juice on the south side and measured how many times the snail moves towards the cucumber juice and how many times it moves towards the water drop. We discussed this and we also kept a control system for this in which we kept water drops only in the south and north direction and how many times the snail moves in which direction. We discussed this. In the discussion we found that the snail moves mostly towards cucumber juice. But when water drops are placed in the control system, the movement of the snail is random. He can move in any direction. Here we also talked about Snell’s stimulus. Snails are more attracted to cucumber juice.

Original article here👇


How Cubists are taking better videos and photos of Waterfleas!? What procedure are they following !?

Can we connect Image formation in eyes Vs image formation in compound microscope @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ @⁨Tiku Kashyap⁩ @⁨~Sweety⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨Kiran Mam⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ & others

Cubists are tried to connect how are we seeing waterfleas in culture bottle here the diagram shows how an inverted image formed in the retina ,but how our brain played a role in making inverted to real image @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Kiran Mam⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dr.Dinesh Datta⁩ @⁨Rakesh Biswas⁩ @⁨~Nagarjun Thota⁩ & others

How image formation occuring in convex lens explained by @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩

“Although people often believe that an upside-down image in the eyeball gets rotated somewhere in the brain to make it look right side up, that idea is a fallacy. No such rotation occurs, because there is no replica of the retinal image in the brain—only a pattern of firing of nerve impulses that encodes the image in such a way that it is perceived correctly; the brain does not rotate the nerve impulses.”


“THE LENS IN YOUR EYE casts an upside-down image on your retina, but you see the world upright. Although people often believe that an upside-down image in the eyeball gets rotated somewhere in the brain to make it look right side up, that idea is a fallacy. No such rotation occurs, because there is no replica of the retinal image in the brain—only a pattern of firing of nerve impulses that encodes the image in such a way that it is perceived correctly; the brain does not rotate the nerve impulses.”
Right Side Up - Scientific American.


Dragon fruit seeds.

Experimental setup in Amritha’s Homelab

Discussion was about the seed germination on dragon fruit by Amritha .

We also discussed about the seed germination in cardamine.

A dormant seed will not germinate when it will be exposed to the right environmental conditions (light and water). Seed dormancy can be broken by dry storage or by a cold imbibition (stratification). Seed germination in Arabidopsis is two-step: testa rupture followed by endosperm rupture.30-Dec-2008.Seed Dormancy and Germination - PMC


Chatshaala Discussion was about the seed germination study made by Cubists Charvi Abhi0703 lakshmy and others

Also discussed about the seed germination studies in some common weeds .


Context to Curriculum today we had very interesting discussion with ⁨Enas CUBE⁩ ⁨Ganga CUBE⁩ Arunan sir⁩ & others .can we do microbial studies in Homelabs!! Why not !today ⁨Enas CUBE⁩ described that how easy to make a microbiology lab in home.

What is a colony ? How can we make bacterial colony in boiled potato slices?

Mathematics in Biology :face_with_monocle: . ⁩ Enas CUBE⁩ how microbial colony became a context for size and measurements!?

Can we use curd as a bacterial source for microbial culture? How can we make bacterial colony in boiled potato slices!

Summary by gangakr

Kiran ⁩ raise a question that what is a approximate size of an bacteria.

If the colony size is 1mm and it consists of 1000 bacteria, how can we calculate bacterial size/diameter.

enas calculate the bacterial size from the colony size, By dividing colony size by no. of bacteria in that colony.
ie, 1000micro meter(1mm) /1000 (no. of bacteria).

If that’s the case the size of each bacteria would be 1 micro meter.

Here Enas applied simple mathematics, like if ten pens cost 100 Rs then what would be the cost of 1 pen?