Effect of Kanamycin in Cardamine and Chlorohydra

Kanamycin is an antibiotic.

What may be the influence of different concentrations of Kanamycin on Cardamine?

Is Cardamine already resistant to Kanamycin?

If we apply similar concentrations of Kanamycin to Cardamine and Chlorohydra, what will be the result?
@Smiti @dhanraj7 @shalinisharma98 @Enas @Abhi0703 &others

What is the ongoing interesting discussion in CUBE !?
@⁨shalini CUBE⁩ Says that the effect of Kanamycin in cardamine/chlorohydra
How do kanamycin effect in cardamine!?
What is the interesting topic that intiated by @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ &
Can we study the effect of Kanamycin in cardamine & chlorohydra!? @Nazish ⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Saida Sayyed CUBE⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ @sreepriya

That was an interesting discussion about the effect of Kanamycin: ⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨~Shubham U.V Tanpathak⁩ @⁨Saida Sayyed CUBE⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ @⁨Arunan sir :smiling_face:⁩ & others

Where do kanamycin work?
According to @sreepriya kanamycin work on only in plants but @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ says kanamycin cure tuberculosis .

How do kanamycin cure tuberculosis&what is tuberculosis ?
As per reference Kanamycin is used to treat multi-drug resistant TB as well.
What do we understood by multi-drug resistant TB? @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩
Is there any first line , second line treatment for tuberculosis!?what all antibiotics are used here !?

How do a common antibiotic like penicillin works:
@⁨smiti Says penicillin works on the synthesis of newly dividing cell wall of bacteria
But @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ says it will effect on the cell wall of bacteria!? Is that you both were saying!? @⁨~Dhanraj⁩
Is there any TINKE moments!? @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ & others .

Following summary written by @Enas

Todays Discussion started with @⁨Sakshi⁩ , she is going to have some discussion on Chlorohydra in her college.
We discussed :
:black_small_square:What is chlorohydra ?
:black_small_square:What’s chlorella?
:black_small_square:︎ What is Symbiotic relationship? How chlorella and hydra showing this relationship?

:black_small_square:︎ Effect of Kanamycin on Chlorohydra? ( @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ is doing this study )

Experimental Design of how to study the effect of diifferent concentration of Kanamycin on seed germination. (By @⁨Sakshi⁩ )
What is the process of seed germination?

What will be the effect of Kanamycin on Chlorohydra and Cardamine seed germination?
• What are different types of ribosomes and where are they found? Which ribosome Kanamycin effect?

Story of Sakshi:
• She started Moina and Chlorohydra culture on 8th July 2023 after the workshop in her college and the mentor was @dhanraj7
• Chlorohydra died in 2 days, but again started the culture.
• Now, Sakshi is having a well flourished culture of Chlorohydra in her College lab around 150 Chlorohydra.

Follow up discussions:

NOW THE PICTURE IS GETTING CLEARER. How context gives clarity to curricular topics

  • Smiti

[02/01, 13:41] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: Not too sure about it I was thinking to try to see effect of streptomycin on the seed germination, as me @⁨̇Vatsal Savla⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ tried to look for kanamycin in different pharmacy stores and it was not available also it’s expensive… One of my aunt’s daughter works in hospital’s and she told if they want kanamycin they need to order it in stocks so why not use an alternative
[02/01, 13:49] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: And this semester in college we have pharmacology as a subject so in 4th unit we have antibiotics , their classification , mechanism of action, etc so there when professor was teaching us the topic I came to know that kanamycin comes under aminoglycosides which is a group of antibiotics that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes
[02/01, 13:51] Himanshu Joshi: Do both streptomycin and Kanamycin work the same?
What is the role of Kanamycin in your experiment…
Is streptomycin really an alternative?
⁩ @⁨̇Vatsal Savla⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩
[02/01, 13:56] Himanshu Joshi: Can you and your collaborators chalk out a plan…

Design of experiment:
first before going on a shopping trip to buy antibiotic

And keep results and conclusion to be filled later
@⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨̇Vatsal Savla⁩
[02/01, 13:59] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: Yes we would fill it but 1st we need to figure out if streptomycin really fits here as an alternative… Actually I also came across some paper which talked about effect of streptomycin on arabidopsis thaliana
[02/01, 14:00] Himanshu Joshi: What do you expect from Kanamycin in your experiment?
@⁨+91 96193 94875⁩
Infact, what is your experiment about?
[02/01, 14:08] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: The very 1st stage is about cardamine identification and then trying different concentrations of antibiotics (either kanamycin or streptomycin) and to see at what concentration we see maximum effects just like @⁨Nazish Cube⁩ from byculla, mumbai did during lockdown… Nazish used kanamycin but here we are thinking to use some alternative of it which is easily available and kind of cheaper
[02/01, 14:11] Himanshu Joshi: Essential description is missing. How do we know what @⁨Nazish Cube⁩ did?
Nazish used Kanamycin for what?
Nothing is clear…
[02/01, 14:33] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: According to what I know nazish got kanamycin antibiotics from her work place during lockdown and she knew about cardamine and how it’s related to arabidopsis… Maybe she came to know about it from research papers

So nazish checked the germination of cardamine seeds in Kanamycin Antibiotic in the year 2020.

Nazish found out that when we allow the seeds in Kanamycin Antibiotic it didn’t affect the germination but it affected the growth and colour of the plant.

Nazish used different concentrations of kanamycin antibiotic and in the highest concentration of Kanamycin significantly affected the growth and color of plant.
[02/01, 14:47] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: About nazish’s work I just have 1 picture that I got in this group and rest would be on metastudio but currently I’m unable to use metastudio it shows the website it temporarily down
[02/01, 15:21] Saida cUBE Elphinstone: It is because kanamycin is affecting the chloroplast ribosome
Which is why it appears to yellowish in colour
Because chlorophyll is affecting even photosynthesis is affected
[02/01, 15:26] Smiti CUBE Elphinstone: Hmmm… :thinking: Now the pictures are getting clear… So if chlorophyll affects photosynthesis and photosynthesis is done by plants to get energy, food that helps in growth of the plant

If chlorophyll synthesis will stop the amount of chlorophyll would decrease in plant due to which photosynthesis process would be hindered giving rise to less energy and food so length of plant will also decrease as for proper growth we need good food.

Cardamine from CUBE Somaiya college to @Smiti 's Homelab:
Following post made by @dhanraj7

What’s the gossip? @Smiti @⁨Arunan sir :smiling_face::grin::grin:. Any follow up on these!? Why are u holding this cup!? Did you throw that cup away along with the cardamine plant that you collected from somaiya campus!? Any further updates?@smiti Photo -6th November 2023.

Post by @Smiti

I got this plant in somaiya campus yesterday on 4th January and there are 6 mature plants like this which as compound leaves like marked in blue at bottom and a different type of leave marked in green on the top near pods in all the plants… Is this a cardamine? How do we identify a cardamine hirsuta? @⁨Nazish Cube⁩ @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Rechel CUBE⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am :smiling_face_with_three_hearts:⁩ @⁨Arunan sir :smiling_face:⁩ and others
Date: 5th January 2024
Location: Bandra, Mumbai.

That’s was an interesting discussion. @Smiti ⁩ @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ & others
Thanks for the confusions ⁩ .
Congratulations to @Smiti for collecting cardamine plants from CUBE somaiya.
@Smiti Now interested to check ,“Does the cardamine is resistant to kanamycin or not”.
Questions raised

  1. Where do we get kanamycin,
    How chemicals are reaching in colleges ?

Can we collect some cardamine seeds for doing that same .
@⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ & others .

Smiti ⁩ had an interesting worries about her cardamine.
Can you please share your worries regarding cardamine plant that you are having .
How many different types of leaves cardamine had ? @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩
How simple leaves of cardamine different from compound leaves ? @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩
How the compound leaves of a cardamine different from each other ,does the number of leaf let increase bottom to top .

Chlorohydra: Post by @dhanraj7 in context to Curriculum WhatsApp group.

Hydra cultured at CUBE Somaiya Photo - Dhanraj Tribhuvan; 11th August 2023 What do you expect to happen to these pretty Chlorohydra if treated with Kanamycin antibiotic?
How do we design an experiment? @⁨~Shubham U.V Tanpathak⁩ @⁨Dhanraj Elphinstone Tribhuvan⁩ @⁨Sakshi🌼 CUBE Ratnam⁩ @⁨Theertha CUBE Kozhikode⁩

Culturing chlorohydra in the beaker
hydra kept near the window;
homelab badlapur
18th January 2024
photo - dhanrajtribhuvan

Culturing chlorohydra in the beaker
approx. 100 hydra are present in the beaker
hydra kept near the window;
homelab badlapur
18th January 2024
Video - dhanrajtribhuvan

18th January 2024
Video - dhanrajtribhuvan.

Discussions in Context to curriculum WhatsApp group regarding effect of Kanamycin in cardamine and chlorohydra:

Dhanraj :I’m not doubtful about the effect. But I’m not understanding the reason behind treating chlorohydra with kanamycin!

I’m expecting that chlorohydra will loose it’s green colour if treated with different concentrations of kanamycin. What actually does kanamycin do the plant? @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨Nazish Cube⁩ @⁨Shraddha⁩ @⁨Arunan sir :smiling_face:⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am :smiling_face_with_three_hearts:⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩

[31/12/2023, 5:29 pm] Dhanraj :What is the role of kanamycin? I have heard that kanamycin is given to patients who are diagnosed with tuberculosis. Is it true? @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Sonal DSC⁩ @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨Nazish Cube⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ and others
[31/12/2023, 5:34 pm] Chithra Mam: Find out how antibiotics work, especially kanamycin and you will get the answer to your question. :blush:
[31/12/2023, 5:36 pm] +Dhanraj: Kanamycin (antibiotic) is drug that will target specific bacterial processes, such as inhibition of cell wall synthesis or protein production. Once the bacteria are unable to function properly, they will die.
[31/12/2023, 5:37 pm] Chithra Mam: Are you sure that kanamycin targets bacterial cell wall synthesis?
[31/12/2023, 5:38 pm] Shraddha: How exactly Kanamycin inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis?
[31/12/2023, 5:42 pm] Chithra Mam: :+1:Kanamycin works by interfering with protein synthesis. It binds to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. This results in incorrect alignment with the mRNA and eventually leads to a misread that causes the wrong amino acid to be placed into the peptide. This leads to nonfunctional peptide chains.
[31/12/2023, 5:43 pm] dhanraj :It will bind to the ribosomes. kanamycin will disrupt the translation process, which leads to the production of incorrect proteins and ultimately stopping bacterial growth!? Is it ?
[31/12/2023, 5:44 pm] Chithra Mam: Yes. Will it then affect protein synthesis in plant cells too?
[31/12/2023, 5:47 pm] Dhanraj :Although primarily used as an antibiotic targeting bacteria, kanamycin’s mechanism of action involves disrupting protein synthesis through its interaction with the 30S ribosomal subunit.
[31/12/2023, 6:06 pm] Smit: After reading would like to differ it seems it affects chloroplast and not mitochondria In plant ( but in mammals and bacteria it affects Mitochondria )

Aminoglycosides can enter chloroplast through an iron transporter located on chloroplast membrane; in the chloroplast these antibiotics inhibit chloroplast translation by targeting ribosomal 16S and 23S rRNA. Another study shows that aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and macrolides can inhibit translation in the chloroplast without direct effects on cytoplasmic protein synthesis. ( would be reading why they didnt had effect on cytoplasmic protein synthesis


[31/12/2023, 6:11 pm] Chithra Ma’am: :+1: but why not affect protein synthesis in plant mitochondria?
[31/12/2023, 6:23 pm] Chithra Mam: Kanamycin interferes with protein synthesis in the chloroplasts and mitochondria of plant cells and causes yellowing of the green organs of plants.
[31/12/2023, 6:29 pm] Chithra Ma’am: It is well known that kanamycin is a sort of aminoglycoside antibiotic, could combine with ribosome 30S subunit in the chloroplast and mitochondrial and interfere protein synthesis, finally render etiolation and death of plant (Nap et al., 1998; Lu, 2001; Yang et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2005; Rafia & Sehrish, 2008).

Lakshmy:I think Kanamycine effect hydra. The hydra may die.Hydra is an animal having mitochondria.Kanamycine effect 30s ribosomal unit. Also hydra shows symbiotic relationship with algae chlorella. Kanamycin effect chloroplast in plants. So the green colouration of hydra may lost @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Arunan sir :smiling_face:⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨~Shubham U.V Tanpathak⁩.

How are we going to perform effect of Kanamycin in cardamine and chlorohydra @Smiti @dhanraj7 @Abhi0703 @shalinisharma98 & others .

Pictures of Chlorohydra:

Photo: Sakshi @sakshiconsultant2002

Chlorohydra feeding moina .


Air bubbles in hydra culture march 2020 homelab Kolkata, BatulP

Photo shared by @magpie