Migration & Establishment of Cardamine Plants

Following are the photos shared by @Arunan

Story of Cardamine Weed Migration and Establishment from 5 April 2024 to 18 May 2024 Cardamine weed forest in Assagaon private Agricultural farm Cassa Nazare, Goa 5 April, 2024 Photo mcarunan

Story of Cardamine Weed Migration and Establishment* from 5 April 2024 to 18 May 2024 Cardamine plants transplanted on 6 April 2024 to Madel,Thivim Goa from weed forest in Assagaon private Agricultural farm Cassa Nazare, Goa 6 April 2024 Photo mcarunan

Story of Cardamine Weed Migration and Establishment from 5 April 2024 to 18 May 2024 Data of 13 April 20024 Cardamine plants transplanted on 6 April 2024 to Madel,Thivim Goa from weed forest in Assagaon private Agricultural farm Cassa Nazare, Goa Photo mcarunan

Next generation Cardamine weed in about a month’s timeDate 11 May 2024* Story of Cardamine Weed Migration and Establishment from 5 April 2024 to 18 May 2024 Data of 11 May 2024 Cardamine plants transplanted on 6 April 2024 to Madel,Thivim Goa from weed forest in Assagaon private Agricultural farm Cassa Nazare, Goa Photo mcarunan

Seeds of 5 April Cardamine emerging as many more seedlings on 18 May 2024.
*Is there Cardamine seed Dormancy of about a month in Summer months in Goa? Story of Cardamine Weed Migration and Establishment from 5 April 2024 to 18 May 2024 Data of 18 May 2024 Cardamine plants transplanted on 6 April 2024 to Madel,Thivim Goa from weed forest in Assagaon private Agricultural farm Cassa Nazare, Goa Photo mcarunan

Second generation Cardamine plant in pot along with many weeds, at Madel, Thivim Goa 20 May 2024 Photo mcarunan
Original Cardamine plant was brought from a Private Agricultural farm.

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Do you expect this is the way weeds like Cardamine spread across India? @Theertha

What Is your personal experience and experience of others?
What is your proposal of weed dissemination?
Can we use this as a model system for understanding how weeds spread ?
What is your proposal, based on Cardamine studies, by CUBE participants?

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Even I have found cardamine only in areas where soil is brought from some nursery.

For example the soil which is used in Somaiya College Campus for Gardening is not the native soil. It was brought from somewhere.

Also if not soil then the plant which were brought from nursery they themselves could have helped in the spreading the seeds of cardamine.

Also last year in December I had gone to Sindhudurg for our departmental trip. There also in Cashew Research Institute I found cardamine.

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Any photo evidences, to substantiate your statements? @Abhi0703
That would help in continuing this pursuit on Cardamine as a Model System.

I collected Cardamine plants from a plant nursery. I think Cardamine is not native to my area, Kozhikode, Kerala. Through the northern side, Cardamine may have reached north India and into Kerala.

Year of photo:2022.

Cardamine hirsuta is native to Europe, North and Central Africa, from the Arabian Peninsula to China.
https://portal.wiktrop.org/species/show/49.

Habitat and distribution: Cardamine hiruta

It is commonly found in damp, recently disturbed soil, open ground, turf and waste places[6][10]: 401 and native to Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, North Africa, Central Africa, and the Horn of Africa.[11]

These conditions are prevalent in nursery or garden centre plants, and hairy bittercress seeds may be introduced with those plants. Once established, it is difficult to eradicate. The tiny flowers are attractive to a few early butterflies, including (in the United States) spring azure (Celastrina ladon) and falcate orange-tip (Anthocharis midea).

Cardamine hirsuta has been introduced in many countries across the world. Its range includes but is not limited to: Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Gabon, Great Britain, India, Japan, Laos, Madagascar, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkmenistan, United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[12][4][13



These 2 photos of cardamine were taken by me on 18th December 2023 in Regional Fruit Research Centre, Vengurla, Sawantwadi.

This institute makes new varieties of Mango, Cashew and other fruits and cultivates them to sell it to farmers in the region.



And this above 2 photos were taken on 4th August 2023 from Somaiya Campus.

In both these regions soil is brought from other areas hence we can say that Migration of Cardamine happens through nursery or garden soil.