Process of Mango flowering

How many number of mango trees are flowering in your place?

Kerala shows high percentage of flowering than delhi ?

What are the common mango varieties are there in your area ?

What are the factors responsible for flowering?

1)external clues : Temperature,Day length

2)Internal clues: Hormone ??
Many more !?

@⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ had an interesting story to tell us ;
there is a mango tree with one branch having flowers and another branch without flowers?

Why that ?what cause branch A to not flower?

How does a plant change from a Vegetative meristem to floral meristem?

Do we have problems in understanding terms like differentiation, meristem !? Yes.we have :relieved::face_with_diagonal_mouth:

How shoot apical meristem gives rise to stem ,leaf , Trichome (shoot hair )?

Are there any hormone are required?

shoot apical meristem(SAM) have any ability to synthesis Auxin !?

How auxin is synthesized in SAM? @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩

Auxin is derived from *tryptophan ( sorry I mentioned in Chatshaala that methionine as a precursor for auxin ,but methionine is a precursor for ethylene).

How tryptophan is synthesized by plants?

During the course of their life cycles, plants undergo various morphological and physiological changes un- derlying juvenile-to-adult and adult-to-flowering phase transitions. To flower or not to flower is a key step of plasticity of a plant toward the start of its new life cycle.

CUBE context to Curriculum WhatsApp group

[14/01, 10:19 am] Arunan sir: Very interesting insights from Simple Mango Tree Mapping.

What can be the difference between Vegetative Meristem and Floral Meristem?

[14/01, 10:55 am] Himanshu Joshi: Tree growth is driven by leaf primordium initiation at shoot apices through a series of growth and developmental events largely mediated hormonally and often determinate in nature. This repeating pattern keeps trees alive and reproductive and conserves the phenotype.

[14/01, 11:12 am] Himanshu Joshi: auxin is indole acetic acid (abbreviated IAA), a weak organic acid with a structure similar to the amino acid tryptophan.
It controls cell division, cell expansion, and cell differentiation. It has a ubiquitous and context-dependent function, making it difficult to assign a single function to auxin.
It appears that auxin affects almost all developmental steps in plants from early embryogenesis to fruit ripening and controls organogenesis at the meristems, which define plant architecture. Nowadays, research focuses on understanding how such a small molecule can be ubiquitous and at the same time have context-dependent function.

Sounds like context to the curriculum:rofl:

Questions came in yesterday’s Chatshaala

How does SAM ( shoot apical meristem)synthesis Auxin?
Auxin is formed from a precursor Tryptophan.
Tryptophan biosynthesis pathway begins with phosphoenol pyruvate ( intermediate of glycolysis)>Shikimate >Anthranilate > Chorismate and follow the flowchart
( shikimicacid-Pathway).

How does auxin help in shoot formation?
Early stage of adventitious shoot formation. Auxin is transferred from the apical to the basal region of the internodal segment by PIN auxin efflux carriers, which maintain low endogenous auxin levels on the apical side, facilitating differentiation of adventitious shoots. Auxin accumulates on the basal side of the internodal segment, where it suppresses adventitious shoot formation and induces callus formation.
b) Late stage of adventitious shoot formation.
One of the shoots formed becomes dominant. Auxin from its apical meristem is transported into the internodal segment, and the auxin transport stream suppresses growth of other shoots.

Where in SAM( shoot apical meristem) the stemcell present?

Wus plays a key stem-cell-promoting role, which therefore
also makes it a likely target of pathways involved in terminating stem cell maintenance in floral meristems

The stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are
located in the L1–L3 layers
at the meristem centre, and
their progeny are progressively displaced towards the periphery of the meristem where they are recruited

into organ primordia.(leaf primordia & flower primordia ,i guess)

Vegetative meristem formation
interactions between
WUS and CLV3, whereby WUS promotes the expression of
which in turn* , via activation of the Clv complex-
dependent signalling pathway, restricts WUS expression

Floral meristem formation
Two groups have now shown that AGAMOUS (AG), a gene
previously known to play a dual role in floral organ patterning and the termination of flower development,
with WUS .
Moreover, when WUS
expression was forced by expression under control of either
the LEAFY (LFY) or APETALA3 (AP3) [3] or AG promoters [2], supernumerary stamens and carpels as well as
homeotic transformations were observed.
(Actually LFY,AP3,AG all are floral genes)

Transition from Vegetative growth to reproductive growth

[14/01, 1:00 pm] Prithviraj CUBE: Give details of florigen formation and function also.
[14/01, 1:28 pm] Vijaya tilak : What is WUS expression Theertha.
Thank you for informative tutorial🙏

Recent advances in molecular genetics in plants revealed the molecular nature of florigen as a globular protein named FT.These prerequisites were determined from the long history of classical physiological studies, and they are as follows: (1) produced in leaves under a favorable day length, (2) transported from leaves to the SAM through phloem, and (3) conserved across angiosperms .
Florigen is a mobile flowering signal in plants that has a strong impact on plant reproduction and is considered one of the important targets for crop improvement. At the molecular level, *florigen is represented as a protein product encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which is highly conserved across flowering plants and thus the understanding of this protein is expected to be applied to the improvement of many crops.

WUSCHEL (WUS) is a transcription factor,which means a protein that formed from WUS gene that can promote the production of protein CLV3)& there by helping in vegetative growth. This is what I understood. Let’s read this paper too.

The maintenance of the stem cell niche in the shoot apical meristem, the structure that generates all of the aerial organs of the plant, relies on a canonical *feedback loop between WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3). *WUS is a homeodomain transcription factor (a protein produced from WUS gene, i think ) expressed in the organizing centre that moves to the central zone to promote stem cell fate. CLV3 is a peptide whose expression is induced by WUS in the central zone and that can move back to the organizing centre to inhibit WUS expression.

Question arises in yesterday’s Chatshaala
1)what is a meristem!?

Meristems are clusters of cells that allow the basic body pattern established during embryogenesis to be reiterated and extended after germination.
Meristematic cells are similar to stem cells in animals.
Meristems fall into three categories: apical lateral, and intercalary.
Apical meristem:Shoot & Root
The shoot apical meristem produces stems, leaves, and reproductive structures.
Vegetative Growth - Developmental Biology - NCBI Bookshelf.

The root stem cell niche resides within quiescent centre (QC)
The shoot stem cell is in Organizing centre (OC).

(A) In the Arabidopsis root, stem cells for all cell types surround the quiescent center (QC), a small group of organizer cells that are required for stem cell maintenance. Stem cells undergo asymmetric cell divisions and their daughter cells differentiate into all root cell types. Root stem cells and quiescent cells are specified by a combination of the PLETHORA (PLT1 and PLT2), SHORTROOT (SHR), and SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factors.(responsible for root parts formation ,I think )Black arrows define a stem cell maintenance signal produced by quiescent cells that has yet to be identified.
(B) In the shoot of Arabidopsis, a stem cell pool is located above the organizer cells (OC), (also called Organizing centre)which express the WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor. The black arrow indicates an unknown signal that induces the organizer cells to express WUS. Stem cells of the plant shoot produce the small secreted protein CLAVATA3 (CLV3) that negatively regulates expression of WUS (green arrows). Stem cell daughters that leave the signaling domain differentiate and form leaf primordia (LP).


Posted by Prithviraj sir in Context to curriculum WhatsApp group:

Photo of nattumavu(local) verity bloomed with leaves only photo take on 3-12-23. The same tree with flowered branches photo taken on 11-1-24.Prithviraj CUBE SN. College Varkala.
I observed an interesting thing about mango flowering at my home. There are three mango trees at my home. Two of them are indigenous(local) variety and one is hybrid. The local varieties are named moovandan and nattumavu. Nattumavu is very famous for making the delicious curry we call mampazha pulissery. Nattumavu is an endangered mango tree. The trees are very large and mango is small so people are not interested in conserving it.People are more interested in growing hybrid varities. A number of mango variety are extinct now.
Let me come to my observation. This mango season two of the local varieties moovandan and nattumavu bloomed with tender leaves during november last. I posted the photos on 3-12-23.No flowering noted. The hybrid not flowered or bloomed with leaves. My expectation was the bloomed branches will flower after two or three month later. What happened to moovandan is some of its branches flowered well the photo taken on 11-1-24 is attached. My conclusion is that there are vegetative and flowering branches. Vegetative branches bloomed with leaves during november and reproductive branches flowered now. The hybrid also flowered now. Local variety moovandan does not flowered still now. Prithviraj. CUBE. SN. College varkala 11-1-24.
Some indigenous mango varieties of our locality are
Kottookkonam, Vellankolly, Moovandan, Karpooram, Nattumavu, Mylapoo, Kappamavu, Kilichndan etc.

Chatshaala discussions :Mango Phenology

How does latitude play a role in the flowering of a mango tree? Any comments? @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨Anitha Miss⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Enas CUBE⁩

If we travel from Kerala to Delhi, what will be your expectations regarding flowering in mango trees? @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am ⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨Sonal DSC⁩ & others

What is your favorite mango variety? :yum:@⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ & others .Mine is Thathakothan; I feel it’s more tasty when preserved it in salt water. What is your favorite!? @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ says her favorite is Alphonso, but that is rarely available in Delhi! Why is that? Is it not much cultivated in Delhi? @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨Anitha Miss⁩ @⁨Arunan sir ⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am & others .

@⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ please share your summary of the mango data that you collected two days ago🥳

Yes, we have a family across the country. Let’s have a Republic Day celebration across the country by collecting mango tree flowering data. @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ @⁨Susanta Tanti CUBE⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨Seema CUBE⁩ @⁨Neha Rane⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Hina CUBE⁩ @⁨Isha CUBE⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨Rakesh Biswas⁩ @⁨~Vijaya Tilak⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ & others.

@⁨Arunan sir says 16/30 flowering in Pedder Road What is the substantial percentage of mango flowering? Is it 3%, 30%, 50%, or many more? @⁨Kiran Ma’am ⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ & others

Following summary by @shalinisharma98

:sparkles: How many seasons we know about? Does it differ from one place to another?

:sparkles: Why there is difference in timing of flowering in mango at different parts of the country?

:sparkles: How can we connect latitude with flowering in mango across the country?

What others say? @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ @⁨Tiku Kashyap⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ ma’am and others

:sparkles: Do we have data to support our hypothesis?

:sparkles: How does temperature will influence in flowering in mango trees?

:sparkles: In which parts of the country do you expect flowering in mango trees in January and why? @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ and others.
Reference shared in discussions:

[11/01, 9:53 pm] Theertha: the season between autumn and spring comprising in the northern hemisphere usually the months of December, January, and February or as reckoned astronomically extending from the December solstice to the March equinox"

[11/01, 9:53 pm] Theertha: The country’s meteorological department follows the international standard of four seasons with some local adjustments: winter (December to February), summer (March to May), monsoon or rainy season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October and November). Climate of India - Wikipedia
[11/01, 9:54 pm] Theertha: The monsoon season in Kerala extends from June to September, characterised by heavy rainfall and cool temperatures. The state experiences 2 monsoon seasons: the Southwest Monsoon (Edavappathi) from June to August and the Northeast Monsoon (Thulavarsham) from October to November.
Monsoon Tourism in Kerala | Monsoon in Kerala | Rhythm Kumarakom)%20from%20October%20to%20November.
[11/01, 9:54 pm] Theertha: The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons:
Winter, from December to early April.
Summer or pre-monsoon, from April to June (April to July in north-western India)
Monsoon or rainy, from June to September.
Post-monsoon, from October to December. Profile - Climate - Know India: National Portal of India
[11/01, 9:54 pm] Theertha: Today’s minimum temperature in Mumbai is recorded at 26°c (degrees celsius), and the maximum temperature is expected to go as high as 33°c (degrees celsius). Throughout the day, the temperature is likely to hover around 31°c (degrees celsius). Mumbai Weather Today Wednesday, Feb 14, 2024, Mumbai Temperature and Air Quality(AQI).

What is the criteria for calling a season as a winter !?
Is it temperature only ?

Kerala is having winter now, the maximum & minimum temperature of Kozhikode is 32°C & 25°C respectively ,yesterday. At the same time monsoon in kerala has maximum & minimum temperature of 20°C & 30°C respectively.
@⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am ⁩ @⁨~Madeeha Abrar⁩ @⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ & others

Does day length play any role in winter season ? @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩
How does the daylength in Mumbai compare to that in Delhi !?@⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Priti CUBE⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ & others

What factors regulate flowering!?
2)Day length

What does day length indicate ?
Is there any photoreceptor present in plant that responsible for flowering!?

What about Phytochrome!? @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨Shraddha⁩ @⁨Chithra Mam⁩ @⁨Seema CUBE⁩ @⁨Seethalakhmi⁩ & others

Republic day celebration in CUBE
Can we collect some photos mango trees and prove or disprove Shalini 's hypothesis!?

Please state your hypothesis.@⁨shalini CUBE⁩

When ripened mangoes are available in market? @⁨Dr. Binu Miss⁩ @⁨Babitha ma’am SN⁩ @⁨Anitha Miss⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨Leji J Ma’am⁩

are mangoes available early in south indian market than in north India !?@⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Anisha Tandan CUBE⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨CHINTAN GALA CUBE⁩ & others

Summary made by @Charvi .

In today’s chatshala we started off with discussing about about the status of flowering of mango trees with @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ in delhi. And How mango flowering in kerela is different from delhi? @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ . We also tried addressing why are we studying flowering of mango ? give your views @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩

In Continuity to the question how mango flowering time is different in kerela and delhi ? and what are its contributions towards Replublic Day Mango Flowing Data @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁩ @⁨Enas CUBE⁩

towards the end of the chatshaala we related the discussion to our curriculum topics like Molecular mechanisms , research methodology , biostatistics, ecology< geography and many more.

Summary posted by @shalinisharma98

:sparkles: We had wonderful discussion today about mango flowering in different parts of the country; almost everyone likes mangoes but do we know the variety of mango that are we eating? Is it possible to engage vendor to tell about variety from where they are getting it?

:sparkles: How can common sense of ours help in building scientific story of mango tree flowering?
Anyone (scientific background or non-scientific) can tell us which mango variety is available in market and at what time; is it common sense based on their experience with mangoes?
Then, can we correlate it with science? For eg: If mango trees in delhi are flowering in the month of March; can we expect ripen mango to be available in market by April? If yes, could it be exported mangoes from southern India? How can we relate availability of mangoes at different times all over the country with latitude?

:sparkles: Is there any role of longitude in mango trees flowering? If yes, how?

@⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨Enas CUBE⁩ and others.


:sparkles: Instead of saying NO to things; can we see it from different angle to make it possible.

If we itself can’t collect the data on Mango trees, we can mobilize other people (Non-scientific background are also welcome - CITIZEN science project it is) to send some data from their respective place.
Later on, interpretation can be done based on the data we obtained and hypothesis we made.

:sparkles: Story behind data collection:- When I asked my cousin to send some mango trees photos, he said that this time trees are not flowering and fruiting; then what’s so interesting about it that you still want the photos?

:sparkles: Having preferred result is important. But not having preferred result is also VERY important in science and we call it as DATA.

Let’s ask more people to collect data. @⁨Theertha⁩ @⁨~Charvi⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨Nidhidevdas CUBE⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ and others

[24/01, 12:37 am] shalini CUBE:
[24/01, 12:37 am] shalini CUBE: The Origins of Alphonso Mangoes
However, it is widely believed that this delightful fruit originated in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, India. The region’s favorable climate, with its warm summers and abundant rainfall, provides the ideal conditions for mango cultivation.History and Origin of Alphonso Mangoes - Ajramar International.

Can we say Mango tree having a circannual rhythm ?
What is a circannual rhythm?
What actually 2017 nobel prize tell us ? How flowering in mango tree regulated @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am & others

What is the flowering pattern in different parts of india? Is there any difference? @⁨Thikan CUBE⁩ please share the summary of your mango data collection.@⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨Nidhidevdas CUBE⁩ please try to collect the pictures of mango tree from your places

How many time a mango tree will take flower to fruit ?
@⁨shalini CUBE⁩ can you say what all TINKE moments we got in yesterday’s Chatshaala.@⁨Thikan CUBE⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ & others

Congratulation @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ for collecting mango tree data with the help of your friends and relatives .
Can you elaborate the pattern of flowering in corresponding regions @⁨shalini CUBE⁩.

How can we convert a photo into a data ? What all things we have to include in it ? @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ & others . Congratulation to @⁨Anusreee SN college⁩ for collecting 82 mango tree data from your place.

What is the difference between mango trees observation with evidence and without evidence , @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ & others. Is that true that 60% of flowering is in Thiruvananthapuram,kerala @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ @⁨~Madeeha Abrar⁩

How a mango flower became a fruit ? @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ @⁨Lakshmy CUBE⁩ & others .what all factors are influencing a flower to became a fruit ?@⁨shalini CUBE⁩ & others

How are we going to celebrate republic day in CUBE ? @⁨Amirtha CUBE⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨Bhagwati Mam⁩ @⁨Batul Ma’am⁩ @⁨Aditya Joshi⁩ @⁨Anusreee SN college⁩ & others

Summary of Chatshaala discussions:14/02/2024

Mango tree flowering:
Can we predict mango flowering across that country?? @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨Kiran Ma’am
If yes ,on what basis you will predict? @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩
Delhi ,Jaipur &Bageshwar, Where will the first flowering occur?@⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ @⁨~Madeeha Abrar⁩ & others.

Why are we focusing on latitude to predict mango flowering across the country?
@⁨Himanshu Joshi⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ &others .
What are the factors influencing mango tree to flower ?@⁨~Sandipan Ray⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ & others.

Above shown the hypothesis regarding the flowering of mango trees by @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ .
On what basis you made this hypothesis? @⁨~Dhanraj⁩
Why @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ not agreeing certain part ? @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨Abhijeet CUBE⁩ & others

When are we predicting mango flowering in uttarpradesh ? @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ . What was the summary that we got from 21st February 2018 from Jammu @⁨shalini CUBE⁩ @⁨~Dhanraj⁩ @⁨~Sandipan Ray⁩ @⁨Prithviraj CUBE⁩ & others